easily   masqueraded,   making   it   potentially   untrustworthy.   Regardless, despite the drawbacks of the UDP protocol, it is still widely in use today. For instance, the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), on port 25, sup- ports UDP, making it possible to transmit emails while impersonating the identity of an alternate IP address. Despite the downfalls of the UDP protocol, there are some advantages to using it. For instance, because it lacks a binding process, the protocol saves processing time, so a UDP  packet can be quickly delivered to a client or server process. The protocol is also available to software developers who might  use  it  when  building  custom  applications,  including  gaming  soft- ware  and  data-driven,  peer-to-peer,  UDP-based,  noncritical  applications that are built for speed but can tolerate some degree of inaccuracy. Last, without a binding process, server-side state cannot be maintained in a UDP transmission as it can be with the TCP/IP transmission. SOAP-based Web service HTTP transports are built on a unique founda- tion. In some ways, their transmission characteristics emulate the efficien- cies associated with the UDP protocol by allowing you to call a remote Web service only once to send the data (because the data is generally so small in terms of bytes). In many other ways, they emulate transmissions associ- ated with the TCP/IP protocol, allowing you to keep state if necessary and to  track  return  information  to  the  user  to  confirm  HTTP  requests.  Effec- tively, it is like having the best of both worlds. Why Web Services Are Superior to Winsock and DCOM The following subsections discuss the history of Winsock and DCOM. Winsock Writing a basic client/server application that leveraged TCP through the Microsoft Winsock control was not a problem, but your efforts were dupli- cated  for  each  application  server  you  wrote.  Here  are  some  additional reasons  why  this  was  a  painstaking  way  of  accomplishing  distributed application programming: nn There was no standard parser. nn Server code applied specifically to the client that it was built for. nn Maintenance was a hassle. nn Firewalls would stop you cold unless you formatted your transmis- sion in an HTML-like format. What Are Web Services? 9