itself  as  a  major  force.  The  Big  5  consulting  firms  were  profiting  hand- somely from SAP implementation services, and analyst organizations were raking in fees for research, vendor selection, and analysis. The SAP ecosys- tem was rich with revenue opportunities that supported or complemented the  SAP  ERP  solution.  PeopleSoft,  which  was  also  known  for  its  client- server  architecture  in  the  human  resources  arena,  attempted  to  challenge SAP by acquiring other vendors and rapidly expanding its application foot- print  to  additional  functions  and  departments  of  the  business  enterprise. SAP had an advantage in functional breadth, however, and the battle was won before it began. The point of this story is that client-server computing brought with it a number of changes in the way that applications were developed, sold, and implemented by software vendors and consumed by corporate users. The client-server architecture created a wave of change across the entire infor- mation technology value chain, threatening the incumbents and embracing new entrants who had a new way, a better way, for computing to be per- formed. The PC was clearly one of the drivers of the client-server wave, as well  as  the  desire  to  break  the  traditional  highly  centralized  mainframe computing model. The client-server computing paradigm for the first time invited  end  users  into  the  corporate  computing  dialog,  and  extended  the reach of business software from the IT department to all business depart- ments.  Client-server  computing,  based  on  the  widespread  penetration  of PCs into homes around the world, enabled users to do more with technol- ogy. Today, Web services are about to create a new wave of change. This new engine of change is relatively simple: The catalyst for Web services is agreement. At its foundation is agreement on the adoption of three funda- mental  standards  for  communicating  between  computer  systems:  TCP/IP, HTTP,  and  XML.  TCP/IP,  or  Transmission  Control  Protocol/Internet Protocol, Hypertext Transport Protocol, and Extensible Markup Language are the pervasive standards for computing that emerged from the Internet revolution. The Internet capped the client-server era of computing by mak- ing computing pervasive to all users, in organizations, and in homes. The Internet extended the reach of computing into virtually all aspects of the human  experience,  from  CEOs  of  multinational  conglomerates  to  home users e-mailing vacation pictures to relatives. Much as the Internet broke the communication and information bottleneck for information consumers of the client-server computing model, Web services will break the commu- nication and information bottleneck for business enterprises. Web services will take B2B communication to new levels. The Internet enabled personal collaboration via e-mail and instant messaging tools; Web services  will  enable  corporate  collaboration  via  loosely  coupled  applica- tions  across  organizational  boundaries.  Web  services  will  enable  much A Day in the Life of a CIO 11 74188_WY_Marks_01  2/5/2003  4:08 PM  Page 11