more  than  information  exchange  between  organizations  based  on  dedi- cated interfaces at the system level. Web services will enable businesses to interoperate at the business process level in dynamic and emergent ways as new processes arise in response to changing business conditions and chang- ing corporate priorities. Rise of the Wintel Duopoly While  client-server  computing  rode  the  PC-driven  Wintel  (Microsoft Windows  operating  system  and  Intel  microprocessor)  wave,  the  Internet began  exposing  this  architectural  paradigm’s  weaknesses.  Web  browsers removed  application-specific  user  interfaces  as  the  method  of  choice  for navigating  applications  and  content,  and  the  rapid  adoption  of  the  Web meant that desktop computing wasn’t really what users wanted. PCs were not used as computing devices; they were used as communication devices. As mobile computing has increased in popularity, and as the inherent diffi- culties in business-to-business integration have been realized, a new para- digm of computing is being hailed as the solution. Web services are here. The inevitable saturation of homes with PCs, combined with the rapid rise of wireless devices, has huge implications for Microsoft and for Intel. First, slowing license revenue from Windows and related desktop software is forcing Microsoft into new ways of revenue and profit creation, such as set  top  boxes  and  gaming  devices.  Microsoft’s  core  business  of  desktop operating systems and desktop software will be increasingly threatened as computing  devices  move  away  from  the  desk  and  become  increasingly mobile. Slowing sales of perpetual software licenses has Microsoft concoct- ing new ways to drive revenue growth, and one of those ways spells the end to these licensing arrangements. Some see a future in which software is sold as services through subscription fees. Microsoft is already considering a rent-for-use model for Microsoft Office, much like subscribing to cellular service and cable television. ERP vendors might consider licensing modules on a metered, per-click basis as opposed to licensing on a per seat basis. Some  speculate  that  Web  services  will  help  to  revive  the  flagging Application  Service  Provider  (ASP)  market  and  perhaps  make  business applications more affordable for all organizations, especially those in the mid-market that can not expend the millions of dollars required for a typi- cal ERP implementation. Web services are perceived by some skeptics as an attempt by Micro- soft and other large enterprise software platform vendors to halt eroding license  revenues  by  providing  software  as  services.  This  action  will  help stave off declining revenue from slowing PC sales and the shift from desk- top  computing  toward  mobile  computing.  Others  see  IBM’s Web services 12 EXECUTIVE’S GUIDE TO WEB SERVICES 74188_WY_Marks_01  2/5/2003  4:08 PM  Page 12