n Revolutionize the corporate computing model for software-producing companies,  for  software-consuming  companies,  for  hardware  and infrastructure companies, and for services companies. Specifically,  Web  services  promise  to  deliver  the  following  high-level benefits to organizations: n Support  application  integration  internally  and  externally,  across  the firewall. n Provide easier B2B collaboration between business partners. n Transition software deployment models from big-bang, high-footprint implementations  to  just-in-time  applications  that  are  appropriate  to the  business  challenge  being  addressed.  This  is  the  beginning  of  the idea  of  Just-in-Time  Information  Technology  based  on  Web  services. Software rental models and grid computing are simply specific subsets of the idea of JIT IT. n Reduce costs of software procurement, deployment, and integration. n Increase business and technology agility by deploying loosely coupled business applications versus monolithic enterprise applications. Why Was the Internet Not Sufficient? One question about the Internet is why it was not robust enough for true B2B  collaboration,  as  well  as  for  complex  processes  that  span  multiple Web  sites  or  multiple  organizations  for  Web  transactions.  The  Internet rapidly evolved for B2B transactions, yet it fell short for complex collabo- ration between organizations due to the following issues: n Lack of standards for B2B integration and B2B automation n Manual  searching  of  Web  content  by  browsers  versus  registry-based applications  that  find  one  another  and  auto-invoke  (this  result  is  a future but possible scenario) n Emerging  standards  such  as  XML  have  already  become  fragmented, diminishing their ability to create consensus among industry solution providers and consumers n Internally-focused application procurement and deployment models Of all these, the most difficult to overcome is probably the internal IT architectural models of organizations. Internally focused application pro- curement and deployment models have to date dominated the IT architec- ture  of  organizations,  in  contrast  to  collaboration-centric  application models. Most IT architectures of today’s corporations are based on a single- company view of their own internal operations. That is not necessarily bad or  wrong.  It  merely  means  that  an  organization’s  investment  in  its  IT 14 EXECUTIVE’S GUIDE TO WEB SERVICES 74188_WY_Marks_01  2/5/2003  4:08 PM  Page 14