provides greater security because encryption is readily available through the use of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). XML in Today’s Software Industry The adoption of XML technologies is primarily being driven by enterprise applica- tions, which are loosely defined as mission-critical, business-class software appli- cations, as opposed to desktop applications geared for home users. Now that I’ve introduced the core technologies, this section provides an overview of the various industry focus areas that are being overhauled thanks to new XML technologies. Web services By using SOAP, XML Schema, and other related technologies (collectively referred to as Web services), companies can expose programmatic access to business logic over  the  Web.  This  business  logic  can  subsequently  be  accessed  by  any  device, remote process, desktop application, or Web application. Web services are trans- forming  the  World  Wide  Web  from  simple  business-to-consumer  applications, which  require  human  interaction,  to  a  distributed  federation  of  loosely  coupled services. A key area for growth will be enhancing business-to-business (B2B) appli- cation  infrastructure,  enabling  the  creation  of  virtual  marketplaces,  as  well  as streamlined order processing and back-office operations. The World Wide Web The Web in its current form is growing at an astounding rate, with an estimated base of 3 billion HTML documents distributed across the world. These documents are primarily intended to be read by people through a browser. Because it could take  thousands  of  years  to  manually  read  through  these  documents,  it  becomes increasingly important to preserve a document’s semantics. The semantics provide the  context  or  meaning  of  a  document,  allowing  you  to  better  understand  it. Contrast this to brute force search engines that determine a document’s relevancy to a particular subject simply by calculating the number of times a keyword occurs. Although  search  engines  such  as  and  have  devel- oped impressive algorithms for making sense of the vast amount of data on the Web,  computers  in  general  have  quite  a  tough  time  deciphering  the  billions  of documents out there. The challenge comes from all the miscellaneous things that clutter  the  actual  document  content:  navigation  bars,  graphics,  advertisements, applets, Flash files, and other things meant to enhance the human user experience but that don’t count as actual page content as far as a Web-bot is concerned. XSL/XSLT stylesheets are commonly used by Web developers to separate data from presentation markup on a Web page. This separation can greatly simplify the indexing, sharing, and retrieving of data on the Web by both people and Web-bots. XSLT also enables the internationalization and localization of Web sites and the Chapter 1: The XMLSPY Game 5